Fundamental Concepts of Interior Design

June 27, 2022
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In creating a compelling interior, there are certain concepts that you need to know and follow. If not, the results may break your heart. In this article, you will learn more about the interior design principles that will help you achieve the desired outcome. Interior design is the art of designing the interior decoration of a living space. It is a mixture of art aesthetics and the science of knowing people’s behavior to make a space functional. 


Every house is always considered to be a unit composed of spaces that are connected with each other. As such, harmony is created when the house is regarded as a whole rather than an isolated structure. This principle gives a sense of unity, therefore these elements need to be applied with uniformity: color, theme, and style. However, these elements may oftentimes differ from each other, these need to work together to create unity. Different shades of colors may also have to complement each other to achieve harmony.


We have heard rhythm in music and you will hear about it again in interior design. This principle is all about generating visual interest by creating patterns of repetition and contrast. It is defined in terms of continuity, recurrence, and movement. The four properties are:

  • Repetition – the use of more than one element or the same element more than once. 
  • Progression – increasing or decreasing one or more qualities of an element.
  • Transition – creating a smoother natural flow for the eye.
  • Contrast – putting two different elements in opposition to each other.


This creates a feeling of stability and equilibrium. This can be achieved with the use of colors, patterns, theme, texture, or shape. A balance should be created in all elements that make up the design. Balance is about ensuring equal distribution and approximation of the visual weight of objects in a room. There are three types of balance and these are symmetrical, asymmetrical, and radial.

  • Symmetrical balance – consists of spaces that are evenly distributed or repeated on the same axis on two sides of a room. 
  • Asymmetrical balance – more casual, more complex, and a common trend in modern design. It creates a balance that does not require duplicating the visual weights of lines, colors, forms, and textures. 
  • Radial balance – this balance can be achieved when some elements radiate around or from a focal point. Examples are a spiral staircase and a round dining table. 

Focal Point

This principle is also called emphasis and adds life to any room. This can be anything, from a large piece of artwork to a sculpture. The focal point captures the attention of the viewer and creates a lasting impression. 

Proportion and Scale

Proportion refers to the ratio between the size of one part to another. While the scale is how the size of one object relates to another. As a rule, the smaller segment should have an equal ratio to the larger segment as that of the larger segment is to the whole space.